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The importance of One Health for pet and human health
Ingredients
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3+ MIN

The importance of One Health for pet and human health

Humans and pets share the same environment, and this interaction will impact their health. As it is considered a member of the family, water and food containers, toys, beds, and all other items are close to the human family items. In some cases, feeding occurs side by side. Therefore, it is crucial that we take care of the health and hygiene of animals and the environment. Humans are in contact with urine and feces when cleaning the environment, and animals often perform their physiological needs indoors.   Taking care of hair, skin, and oral hygiene is extremely important to minimize exposure to undesirable situations, such as allergens and unwanted microorganisms. Animals can be hosts to parasites, such as fleas and ticks, and effective control of these parasites is vital for the health of pets and the people who live with them. Vaccination is an effective way to protect pets' health and helps prevent diseases that can affect humans, so it's crucial to keep your pet's vaccinations up to date.   As for pet food, a nutritionally complete and balanced diet prevents diseases, strengthens the immune system, and improves intestinal health, contributing to the prevention of zoonoses. "I am passionate about the pet industry, and I believe that this industry was born with the concept of One Health. The pet industry can transform waste from the food industry into nutritious and safe ingredients for pets. Biorigin's yeast-derived products are the best example of this, as some come from the food industry and the sugar cane industry, which have several benefits for animal health in addition to being safe and with full traceability. Our yeasts are ingredients of natural origin and support the pet industry in developing foods that follow the trends and needs of pets, such as humanization, premiumization, and specific nutrition, in addition to being part of a sustainable chain." is what Thaila Cristina Putarov, Global Animal Nutrition and Health Business Manager at Biorigin, says.   Several scientific studies demonstrate the benefits of the human-animal bond, such as reducing stress, anxiety, and loneliness and promoting general well-being. Improved mental health is one of the significant benefits of the relationship between humans and pets. According to a survey by The Human Animal Bond Research Institute (HABRI – 2021) with pet owners in the US, 87% said they experienced improvements in mental health after adopting a pet, and more than one in five owners have had a pet recommended for their health by a doctor or therapist.   The One Health concept encourages research and innovation in animal nutrition, seeking to develop safer, healthier, and more sustainable pet foods. Biorigin has been offering ingredients of natural origin for 20 years to meet the demands of the pet food market, providing solutions that help improve intestinal health, pet immunity, and the attractiveness of food. As with our products, MacroGard, scientific and commercial reference, is the source of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans most studied and used in animal feed to maintain health and well-being. It has proven to be an effective tool for skin and hair health, bone health, weight control, and pet immunity. The prebiotics ActiveMOS and HyperGen are rich in mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) that function as substrates for the microbiota and are essential for maintaining intestinal health and local immunity. Additionally, Biorigin's yeast extracts can also make food tastier for pets. To learn more, read our article on palatability and discover the PalaUp line.
  Source: Biorigin.

Might pet food provide better prospects for lab-grown meat?
Ingredients
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9+ MIN

Might pet food provide better prospects for lab-grown meat?

The noise surrounding cultivated or lab-grown meat is increasing all the time but the level of activity involving the end product is not yet justifying the hype. Hurdles, including the high cost of producing meat from animal cells, gaining regulatory approval and convincing customers and the end consumer that it's something they need and want, are either still to be successfully cleared or yet to be approached. For all of the food-tech, or just plain tech, businesses looking to make a name for themselves and for all of the investment money that has flowed into what some see as, depending on the level of hyperbole, the future of food and the saviour of the planet, months and years go by without many of these businesses being much further advanced than when they started out. In November 2020, US-based cultivated-meat business Good Meat became the first company to win approval to sell meat created in a laboratory from cells when it was given the green light by Singapore's regulator. The company, part of Eat Just, has since won similar approval in the US, alongside another company, Upside Foods. However, as Josh Tetrick, the company's founder, told Just Food in December: 'Ultimately, we want to make millions of pounds of cultivated meat but we need to do a lot of work on things like cell density and reducing the cost of the growth medium.' Tetrick said his business was making good progress but added: 'There's no doubt it is a massive challenge to be able to produce it on a large scale. This is a significant challenge for cultivated meat.'   Lab-grown meat and pet food If the companies that have already won regulatory approval and have an end product on sale – albeit in a very limited way – see it as a 'massive challenge', what hope for everyone else? Well, there are signs that cultivated-meat firms may have found a new target, one that would allow them to get their product to market more quickly, to cut down on cell-growth costs and require a less rigorous level of regulation: pet-food. In November, Czech Republic-based Bene Meat revealed it was targeting the EU pet-food market and claimed to be the first to have listed its cultivated cells on the bloc's European Feed Materials Register. No approval is required for animal feeds as long as they are safe and comply with existing regulations. The Prague-based business, backed by medical devices company BTL, has been working on the development and technology of cultivated meat production since 2020.   Meeting the needs of pet-food manufacturers Bene Meat said its pet food will be 'full of pure, high-quality animal protein, without the need for a single animal to die in its production'. Its product, like those of other cultivated-meat manufacturers, is produced in a laboratory in bioreactors by removing cells from a living animal and then growing them in a nutrient-rich medium. Roman Kříž, the company's managing director, said in November: 'We know that at this stage of the research we have already met the needs of pet-food producers, who are constantly looking for ethically and economically meaningful ways to satisfy their demanding customers, pet owners, with their products.' Price – especially of the growth medium – has often been a barrier to manufacturing at scale but Bene Meat said it has developed the technology to 'produce cultured meat in such a way that the resulting price is competitive in comparison with the prices of products made from traditionally-sourced raw materials'. 'There is no inherent reason why it [cultivated meat] should be costly. It's more a question of teething problems and problems of realisation,' Tomáš Kubeš, the company's head of strategic projects, says. 'Bene Meat intends to be a one-stop-shop so we have our own medium and cell lines.' Without giving away company secrets, Vendula Kucerova, Bene Meat's head of sales and marketing strategy, adds: 'We have a cost-effective medium which means we can bring it to the market. Our medium with no FBS [foetal bovine serum] is something different.'
FBS is a by-product of the meat industry and is usually collected from blood at commercial slaughterhouses. Understandably, companies might want to distance themselves from this particular growth medium.   Structural issues Kucerova makes another point about costs when it comes to using cultivated meat for pet food.
'There is a structural issue in trying to create something close to normal meat. For pet food you don't need to do that. It is in the form of processed meat,' she says. Therefore the theory goes that the growth period is shorter, which would be useful when trying to scale-up production. There always seems to be a 'jam tomorrow' element to when cultivated meat products will finally emerge into the daylight but Kubeš is confident Bene Meat is getting close. 'We are already talking intensively with [pet-food] manufacturers and hopefully in Q1 we will start small-scale production trials. 2024 will primarily be for testing,' he says.
'We have built a facility for the pilot scale trial and also hope to have an industrial scale facility by the end of the year to allow us to produce on a commercial scale.'   Assessing pet-food makers' demand for lab-grown meat But why would pet-food companies want lab-grown meat for their products?
Kucerova says: 'Trends have suggested there might not be enough meat in the future and that will impact prices. So, the demand from pet-food manufacturers is quite high. They are looking at alternative protein sources. From feedback, we have found they want alternative protein at an affordable price.'   "Demand from pet-food manufacturers is quite high. They are looking at alternative protein sources"
Vendula Kucerova, Bene Meat   Her view would seem to be backed up by the development of pet-food based on alternative protein sources such as crickets. Last month, Ÿnsect was granted authorisation by the Association of American Feed Control Officials to use de-fatted mealworm proteins within dog nutrition. It is the first time mealworm-based ingredients for pet food have been approved in the US. US-based Hill's Pet Nutrition – owned by Colgate-Palmolive – is to test products for regulatory review and market evaluation based on animal protein created through fermentation by Bond Pet Foods. The companies have also announced a second joint development agreement to create an additional animal protein for potential use in Hill's products. The aim is to 'develop a source of more sustainable animal protein to fulfil the dietary needs of dogs and cats'. This search for alternative protein among pet food manufacturers has not been lost on Canada-based Cult Food Science. In August, Cult Food Science announced a deal with Everything But to use the South Korean start-up's cell-cultivated chicken in its pet-food brands, which include Noochies, Marina Cat and Indiana. The regulatory pathway for pet-food in the US requires approval from the Center For Veterinary Medicine, a branch of the US Food and Drug Administration. In a statement at the time, Cult Food Science said: 'Our collaboration with Everything But is illustrative of our commitment to shaping the future of food at a truly global scale. These ingredients will allow us to reach even more customers with innovative products.' Expanding on its plans in a recent conversation with Just Food, Cult Food Science CEO Mitchell Scott says it is also partnering with another cell-based meat company. 'We are also working with Umami Bioworks from Singapore. We are shipping from Singapore and have a co-packer in the US. We are looking at creating a pilot facility in Boston with Umami,' he says. 'The first product will be Marina Cat, a cultured-snapper product. We're really excited to have a product that can be tasted and tested and hope that will generate additional interest and investment.'   Initial scepticism Scott admits he was sceptical about the idea of using lab-grown meat for pet food at first, largely because of how much it would cost to produce. 'My thoughts at first were that it doesn't make sense but, when I dug into it, I got excited and we saw an opportunity,' he says. 'There is a much quicker regulatory pathway [than food intended for humans]. And, on the cost thing, we can harvest cells mid-term because it doesn't have to have the same structure as meat if it is getting mixed in.
These are not necessarily 100% meat products which helps to make them profitable. Pet food is already a mix of stuff which is fine as long as it's high protein. And, from a consumer point of view, it's not animals eating other animals and it's also sustainable.'   "Given the demand for premium, speciality pet-food the time is right now"
Mitchell Scott, Cult Food Science   Scott believes Cult Food Science could be at the start of a growing trend. 'If it's profitable for us and makes sense at the scale we are doing it, the larger pet-food companies may look at doing it,' he says. 'It's about bringing the product to market and proving there's a demand there.
And some of the cultivated-meat firms are starting to have these conversations as it may mean they can get a product to market in six months rather than a few years. Given the demand for premium, speciality pet-food the time is right now.' Analysts and investors have been quick to pick up on the potential for lab-grown meat and pet-food to have a symbiotic relationship. Lever VC, a New York- and Hong Kong-based investment firm, was one of the first to see the potential of cultivated-meat businesses and recently led a $7m funding round in US-based Clever Carnivore, which is producing cultivated pork sausage with plans to unveil its prototype product, the Clever Bratwurst, this year. On the potential market for cell-based protein in pet food, Nick Cooney, Lever's managing partner, who has previously spoken about Clever Carnivore's 'astonishingly low cost of production' and 'phenomenal science', says he has come round to thinking the idea could have legs.   "It will take a while for cultivated meat to get to a price point where pet food can work"
Nick Cooney, Lever VC   'Prior to this [involvement with Clever Carnivore], we would have been sceptical of cultivated meat for pet-food from a price point of view but Clever Carnivore has made me think again,' he says. 'Not one of the businesses we have looked at has even come close to what Clever Carnivore is doing in terms of production costs.' Cooney stresses that, even so, 'it will take a while for cultivated meat to get to a price point where pet food can work, even within the premium segment'.
But he thinks ongoing premiumisation in the sector is an important factor here and add that 'cats and dogs are less discerning customers as long as it tastes good'. 'And there is a good story to tell in terms of sustainability,' he says.   Easier path to market Hannah Cleland, a research analyst at Just Food parent GlobalData, can see why pet-food has triggered interest from producers of lab-grown meat. 'Cultured pet-food could find an easier path to market than cultured meat is finding for human consumption as there is significantly less red tape for approval of sale for pet-food,' she says. 'On the consumer end however, the biggest drawback will be the cost. Currently, pet owners are predominantly unwilling to commit to more sustainable choices for their pets with 81% globally saying they hadn't bought environmentally friendly/ethical pet-care products between April and June 2023. 'The number one reason cited for this was that sustainable pet products are deemed too expensive. That said, Bene Meat's claim that its cultured pet food is competitively priced against traditional pet food could be a breakthrough in the market.' If the producers, investors and analysts are right, the noise surrounding cultivated meat soon may well be dogs and cats voicing their approval. Source: Just Food. 

What food category does my pet need?
Formulation
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4+ MIN

What food category does my pet need?

By Armando Enriquez de la Fuente Blanquet

Years later, the well-known "Ken-L Ration," canned horse meat, was born in the United States, and thus the first wet diet appeared. Later, in the 1940s, nutrition programs for life stages began. In the fifties, the first therapeutic diets came out, and in the seventies, we saw the first personalized diets by race. It was not until 1980 that the National Research Council published nutritional requirements for dogs and cats. Thanks to this, the nutritional bases are established, along with other guides such as AAFCO or FEDIAF, to provide balanced nutrition to pets. The following are, in very general terms, some examples, since the specific amounts may vary depending on the food formulation: Dog nutritional requirements: Proteins
Puppies: Minimum 22%
Adults: Minimum 18% Fats
Puppies: Minimum 8.5%
Adults: Minimum 5.5% Fiber
Varies depending on the specific formula needs. Vitamins and trace minerals
Specific to the dog's needs and life stage

2. Cat nutritional requirements Proteins
Puppies: Minimum 30%
Adults: Minimum 26% Fats
Puppies: Minimum 9%
Adults: Minimum 9% Fiber
It varies depending on the specific needs of the food. Vitamins and trace minerals
Specific to the cat's needs and life stage. Over the years, a wide variety of foods have emerged. With this, the market has had to organize into types or food categories to provide the consumer with the nutrition they are looking for to meet the needs of each pet.  In many countries, pet foods are subject to regulations and standards set by authorities. This includes ensuring that foods meet certain nutritional standards and clear labeling. An important point to consider with any food type is to follow the manufacturer's recommendations for the appropriate daily amount based on your pet's age, size, and specific needs. Currently, there is a clear definition of food for dogs, cats, birds, rodents, reptiles, etc. However, the nutritional requirement varies depending on factors, such as age, size, activity level, and specific pet needs. So, in addition to species, pet food should be classified by these subcategories. Within the wide variety of pet food categories, there is one established with the economic capacity of each pet parent (in addition to the digestibility of its nutrients): Economy, Standard, or Premium, in very general terms. Within each segment mentioned above, there are other more complex subcategories. Let's talk about some of these: Dry food
This type is the most widely sold in the world and usually contains a balanced mix of essential nutrients. It is produced under the extrusion process to achieve certain physicochemical characteristics. Some nutrients, especially micronutrients, can degrade with processing and time, so it is important to follow the manufacturer's recommendations regarding expiration date and storage. Wet food
This type has a high-water content. Some pets prefer it because of its texture and flavor. It is recommended as a diet supplement of dry foods to promote dental health, as wet food may not be as abrasive. Semi-moist food
It is a combination of the above. BARF food (an acronym for "Biologically Appropriate Raw Food")
It consists of raw foods such as meat, bones, organs, and vegetables. It is based on the idea of being more like the one an animal would find in nature. The raw diet may lack some essential nutrients, so it is important to consider supplements, as well as make sure to maintain high hygiene standards to avoid bacterial contamination. Breed-specific foods
Foods formulated to meet the particular needs of certain breeds. Foods for specific life stages
These can be for puppies, adults, or seniors. Foods for pets with special dietary needs
We can mention, for example, grain-free, hypoallergenic, or foods for pets with weight problems. Snacks and treats
These are small portions of tasty foods for training or as a reward. They are not substitutes for the main meal. Nutritional supplements (vitamins and minerals) They are designed to ensure that the pet receives all the necessary nutrients. Not all animals need supplements. We should remember that a pet will eat the food their owner selects for him and, usually, it will be the same for long periods of time. This food must be balanced and provide all the nutrients so that a pet remains in good health and well-being. Pet parents now have access to more food options and information, and research on pet nutrition has become more advanced and available. As we have seen, there is a category designed by years of research for each specific pet. These foods are prepared to cover each and every one of the nutritional requirements of a dog or cat, considering various factors, including the species, life stage (puppy, adult, senior), size (small, medium, large), breed, activity level, and any special dietary needs.  It is important to note that food choice should be based on the specific needs of each individual pet, as today, food categories that nourish the pet 100% are available for everyone.

By MVZ. Armando Enriquez de la Fuente Blanquet. Source: All Pet Food Magazine.

Wet Pet Food Quality
Micro Ingredients
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6+ MIN

Wet Pet Food Quality

Wet pet food is a popular choice among pet owners, with more than 6.5 billion kgs sold in 2022¹. Pet owners often see wet pet food as a more premium option than traditional dry kibble diets.
They expect their preferred wet pet food brand to be palatable to their pets and have the same appealing aroma, color, and texture every time they open a can or pouch. Consistency in these qualities is particularly important for pet food manufacturers to maintain their brand image. Flavor, aroma, color, and texture can be affected by key parameters of pet food production, including processing conditions, pH, grind size, and thickeners.   Kemin: Your partner in wet pet food Testing solutions in wet pet food is more complex than in dry foods. Kemin has invested in a wet pet food pilot facility to provide partnership opportunities with customers seeking solutions to their wet pet food challenges. This facility is used to build pilot-scale wet pet food batches of loaf or chunk in gravy formulas in cans, trays, and pouches. This facility offers an opportunity to leverage Kemin's expertise across the value chain to help address several key challenges, including palatability, biogenic amine formation, and color retention. At Kemin, we care that our solutions work in pet food matrices and have minimal impact to product integrity and quality standards. Therefore, pilot-scale wet pet food runs can be tested for many success criteria, including palatability, texture, viscosity, pH, color, weep, and aroma analysis, depending on customer needs.   The right texture  While each wet pet meat dough manufacturing process may be unique, it has been observed that meat grind and disintegration quality affect loaf pâté texture or hardness. It has been observed that cats preferentially eat diets with significantly softer loaf pâté texture versus a harder one. Pet parents may also prefer the look of a softer loaf pâté versus a hard, brittle one². Loaf pâté quality is a metric Kemin measures on diets manufactured at their Wet Pet Food Pilot Plant. Kemin Texture Testing³. A texture analyzer with a ball probe can simulate the feel of meat in an animal's mouth and on their model diet. Diets with various meat cutting shear were manufactured at the Kemin Wet Pet Food Pilot Plant and compared to a commercially available Turkey and Giblet Loaf Pâté diet using Tukey Honest Square Differences statistical analyses, with a p-value less than 0.05 to distinguish texture differences.
The Turkey and Giblet Loaf Pâté recipe with minimal meat grinding and cutting shear had a significantly harder loaf pâté than two times and three times more shear [Figure 1]. Compared to desired texture of the benchmark loaf pâté diet, it is observed that too little cutting shear created a significantly harder loaf pâté. Using two times and three times more cutting shear made similar texture hardness to benchmark loaf pâté.       Achieving the ideal "look"   Just like cooking a steak or chicken breast releases juices, meats in a wet pet diet release water during sterilization cooking through the retort process. Meat scientists refer to these juices as weep, syneresis or expressible moisture. Loaf pâté diets sometimes have too much liquid weep, which may thin out the gravy or gel. Too much weep can adversely affect consumer perception, as some consumers view quality wet pet diets as having thick liquid like a gravy or gel. Often thickeners like starches, gums, and proteins are added to diets and special processing is used to enhance soluble proteins and reduce liquid weep. Literature from Kansas State University confirmed that wet pet diets containing only the ingredients necessary for complete and balanced nutrition may be too thin to rapidly fill cans, have sedimentation challenges, and express too much liquid after sterilization cooking. The type and quantity of thickeners must be balanced to achieve the right 'look', including the right amount and thickness of the liquid in a wet diet. Both 'Thick to Thin' and 'Thin to Thick' ingredients are necessary. 'Thick to Thin', Guar gum is a popular ingredient to add to nutritious wet pet meat doughs to thicken it, maintain a homogenous mixture, and to rapidly fill cans. After sterilization cooking, wet pet diets with added guar gum resemble diets with no guar gum. In other words, viscosity and thickness provided by guar gum assists in cooking but not to maintain a thick liquid after cooking. 'Thin to Thick', Other thickeners, gums, and proteins are added to nutritious wet pet meat doughs to enhance their qualities after sterilization cooking. These gums are considered 'Thin to Thick' ingredients, among them kappa carrageenan, xanthan gum, and locust bean gum. These thickeners offer some viscosity before the cooking step but have been observed to thicken remaining liquid and to significantly reduce liquid after sterilization cook.   Overall palatability   After optimizing look and texture, the last step is to ensure that the wet diet is palatable enough to encourage enthusiastic consumption by the target customer- the pets. There are many factors that impact palatability including texture, ingredient type and quality, processing and the type of palatability system that is used. Freshness + Palatability. Ingredients are carefully selected by availability, quality, price, flavor, and processability to meet market needs. Many wet pet manufacturers use both fresh and frozen meats to make their product, which has advantages and disadvantages. Frozen meats have a significantly longer shelf-life and provide ingredient flexibility and availability. On the other hand, frozen ingredients can be difficult to grind or disintegrate, require more energy to activate than fresh meats, and require storage management. Fresh meats can be less expensive and are easier to process than frozen but are difficult to preserve more than a few days and challenging to minimize microbial growth. Aged, fresh meats grow micro-organisms which impact meat dough quality by developing biogenic amines and shortening mandate time – the time between seaming cans and starting sterilization cook process – for wet pet manufacturers. Figure 2 shows that cats prefer lower biogenic amine diets, which can be achieved by using fresher meat or utilizing an antimicrobial treatment to help maintain fresh character.

    Use of a Palatability Enhancer. Wet pet food is often perceived to be highly appealing to cats, but some cats may be reluctant or refuse to eat a diet altogether. Pet food manufacturers can elevate the profile of wet cat food diets by adding palatability enhancers to the finished diet. Figure 3 shows that the addition of a dry palatant in the chunk component of a chicken-based chunk and gravy diet was statistically preferred to a control diet with no palatant. Palatability performance increases with increasing palatant application rate. All rations were made in the Kemin pilot plant.     Moreover, palatant addition to the wet cat diet can transform an amalgam of animal proteins into a product with a clean, unified consumer aroma. Palatants tested in the Kemin Pilot Plant have changed the perception of cat wet pet diets from one that is gamey or pungent to more pleasant meaty flavors or aroma typical of the retorted foods industry. CONCLUSION There are many factors that can influence the overall consumer experience of a wet pet food brand. Understanding how to make a consistent, appealing product is key to satisfying loyal customers and further gaining market share with new customers. Pet food manufacturers should consider the value of partnering with suppliers that understand the complexities of wet pet food production and make solutions tailored to their specific needs.   By: Gregg Schieffer, Ph.D Associate Scientist-Palatants, Kemin Nutrisurance. Source: Kemin Nutrisurance. 

  1 Euromonitor, 2022. 2 Hagen-Plantinga, E.A., Orlanes, D.F., Bosch, G., Hendriks W.H., van der Poel, A.F.B. Retorting Conditions Affect Palatability and Physical Characteristics of Canned Cat Food. J Nutri Sci. (2017), 6, e23, 1-5. 3 Dainton, A.N., Dogan, H., Aldrich, C.G. The Effects of Select Hydrocolloids on the Processing of Pâté-Style Canned Pet Food. Foods. (2021), 10, 2506-2519. 4 Kemin Internal Document: (SD-23-25564). 5 Kemin Internal Document: (SD-22-25122).

Pet supplements on the rise
Micro Ingredients
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4+ MIN

Pet supplements on the rise

By María Candelaria Carbajo

Over time, as countries have gradually eased restrictions and fear, pent-up demand and fiscal stimulus measures facilitated market growth in various sectors. Currently, we are witnessing a fusion of pre-pandemic strategies with the accelerated adoption of digital technologies, shaping a new era of market dynamics. Among the products that are developing the most, we find the pet supplements sector, so much so that an analysis by Grand View Research predicts it will reach 1,050 million dollars by 2027.   Current market situation   When we talk about supplements, we are talking about vitamins, minerals, herbs, botanicals, enzymes, amino acids, or other dietary ingredients.
Although the pandemic already seems like something of the past for many, the truth is that some sectors or markets, as is the case with this one in particular, owe a lot to it for the boom they experienced. Free time, little social life, the adoption of more pets, and the increase in time spent with them have made people not only more aware of the health of their animals but also have time to inform themselves about how to sustain it and enhance it over time. This is when the word supplements appears for many owners, and they begin to consider these products as an alternative to adding to the diet of their dog and cat children. The pet food supplementation industry primarily works with vitamins, nutritional supplements production, storage, and distribution among other nutritional supplements that may be critical to a pet's health and growth, including birds, dogs, cats, and other domesticated animals. Products are extensively researched and quality-checked before they are available on the commercial market with the goal of ensuring animal welfare and promoting healthy growth throughout their lives. Some supplements have generic applications, while others address specific problems, such as digestive problems, joint pain, or skin conditions. And while the industry is facing tremendous growth, it is also facing new challenges and complications. Microbiome health ingredients, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics, are of an ingredient category where the most research is being done these days. Prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics generate significant interest in both humans and animals. Specific research is very important in this class of ingredients because the intestinal microbiome of different animal species can vary considerably.   Investigation and development   The increasing rate of pet ownership drives market demand. Several reasons, including personal decisions and medical factors, are causing a growth in the number of people who choose to have pets, such as remaining child-free by choice, the impossibility due to advanced age, and the economic instability that threatens more than an international population. Some of the most common side effects due to supplement consumption include allergic reactions, overdoses, and digestive problems. Some of them may be more serious than others. However, it is one of the main restrictions on the industry's growth. One of the key opportunities to pursue development is the investment obtained for study, development, and innovation. Currently, there is a significant lack of innovation in product development in the supplements sector at an international level. And, if we observe how people's lifestyle and eating consumption habits (and, consequently, their pets) change, it is expected that this will impact the needs, problems, and diseases that arise or disappear with the passing of time. Therefore, more investment is necessary to obtain more resources in understanding the segment to achieve generalized and specific product development without side effects.   The importance of knowing pet supplement consumers
  Knowing the humanization process that has been strongly impacting the entire pet market, it is not surprising that, with the increasing attention paid to product labels, many ingredients that appear in human supplements have moved into categories of pets. If we talk specifically about supplements, we can already identify in the industry that consumers of pet supplements have stronger or more pronounced tendencies and preferences than the average pet owner. These owners (and those in charge of the pet food purchasing decision) who buy supplements are characterized by proactively seeking information about nutrition. The most reliable source for them is their known veterinarians and, secondly, Internet sites: the same sources for seeking advice and information on human nutrition.
Other very reliable sources for pet owners when it comes to obtaining information about any product type or service for their pets (veterinarians, toys, food, exercise) are their friends and family. This is a key factor for all those companies that want to retain customers because they are the ones who, free of charge, share and recommend (and, therefore, spread) the brands they trust.
  Conclusion   The supplements market has a lot of potential today if we analyze and consider all the trends that reach the pet food industry due to the demands and needs imposed on human industries. To achieve sustained growth, it is essential to promote development, research, and innovation.

Source: All Pet Food.


Micro Ingredients

Micro Ingredients Pet supplements on the rise
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6+ MIN

Wet Pet Food Quality

Wet pet food is a popular choice among pet owners, with more than 6.5 billion kgs sold in 2022¹. Pet owners often see wet pet food as a more premium option than traditional dry kibble diets.
They expect their preferred wet pet food brand to be palatable to their pets and have the same appealing aroma, color, and texture every time they open a can or pouch. Consistency in these qualities is particularly important for pet food manufacturers to maintain their brand image. Flavor, aroma, color, and texture can be affected by key parameters of pet food production, including processing conditions, pH, grind size, and thickeners.   Kemin: Your partner in wet pet food Testing solutions in wet pet food is more complex than in dry foods. Kemin has invested in a wet pet food pilot facility to provide partnership opportunities with customers seeking solutions to their wet pet food challenges. This facility is used to build pilot-scale wet pet food batches of loaf or chunk in gravy formulas in cans, trays, and pouches. This facility offers an opportunity to leverage Kemin's expertise across the value chain to help address several key challenges, including palatability, biogenic amine formation, and color retention. At Kemin, we care that our solutions work in pet food matrices and have minimal impact to product integrity and quality standards. Therefore, pilot-scale wet pet food runs can be tested for many success criteria, including palatability, texture, viscosity, pH, color, weep, and aroma analysis, depending on customer needs.   The right texture  While each wet pet meat dough manufacturing process may be unique, it has been observed that meat grind and disintegration quality affect loaf pâté texture or hardness. It has been observed that cats preferentially eat diets with significantly softer loaf pâté texture versus a harder one. Pet parents may also prefer the look of a softer loaf pâté versus a hard, brittle one². Loaf pâté quality is a metric Kemin measures on diets manufactured at their Wet Pet Food Pilot Plant. Kemin Texture Testing³. A texture analyzer with a ball probe can simulate the feel of meat in an animal's mouth and on their model diet. Diets with various meat cutting shear were manufactured at the Kemin Wet Pet Food Pilot Plant and compared to a commercially available Turkey and Giblet Loaf Pâté diet using Tukey Honest Square Differences statistical analyses, with a p-value less than 0.05 to distinguish texture differences.
The Turkey and Giblet Loaf Pâté recipe with minimal meat grinding and cutting shear had a significantly harder loaf pâté than two times and three times more shear [Figure 1]. Compared to desired texture of the benchmark loaf pâté diet, it is observed that too little cutting shear created a significantly harder loaf pâté. Using two times and three times more cutting shear made similar texture hardness to benchmark loaf pâté.       Achieving the ideal "look"   Just like cooking a steak or chicken breast releases juices, meats in a wet pet diet release water during sterilization cooking through the retort process. Meat scientists refer to these juices as weep, syneresis or expressible moisture. Loaf pâté diets sometimes have too much liquid weep, which may thin out the gravy or gel. Too much weep can adversely affect consumer perception, as some consumers view quality wet pet diets as having thick liquid like a gravy or gel. Often thickeners like starches, gums, and proteins are added to diets and special processing is used to enhance soluble proteins and reduce liquid weep. Literature from Kansas State University confirmed that wet pet diets containing only the ingredients necessary for complete and balanced nutrition may be too thin to rapidly fill cans, have sedimentation challenges, and express too much liquid after sterilization cooking. The type and quantity of thickeners must be balanced to achieve the right 'look', including the right amount and thickness of the liquid in a wet diet. Both 'Thick to Thin' and 'Thin to Thick' ingredients are necessary. 'Thick to Thin', Guar gum is a popular ingredient to add to nutritious wet pet meat doughs to thicken it, maintain a homogenous mixture, and to rapidly fill cans. After sterilization cooking, wet pet diets with added guar gum resemble diets with no guar gum. In other words, viscosity and thickness provided by guar gum assists in cooking but not to maintain a thick liquid after cooking. 'Thin to Thick', Other thickeners, gums, and proteins are added to nutritious wet pet meat doughs to enhance their qualities after sterilization cooking. These gums are considered 'Thin to Thick' ingredients, among them kappa carrageenan, xanthan gum, and locust bean gum. These thickeners offer some viscosity before the cooking step but have been observed to thicken remaining liquid and to significantly reduce liquid after sterilization cook.   Overall palatability   After optimizing look and texture, the last step is to ensure that the wet diet is palatable enough to encourage enthusiastic consumption by the target customer- the pets. There are many factors that impact palatability including texture, ingredient type and quality, processing and the type of palatability system that is used. Freshness + Palatability. Ingredients are carefully selected by availability, quality, price, flavor, and processability to meet market needs. Many wet pet manufacturers use both fresh and frozen meats to make their product, which has advantages and disadvantages. Frozen meats have a significantly longer shelf-life and provide ingredient flexibility and availability. On the other hand, frozen ingredients can be difficult to grind or disintegrate, require more energy to activate than fresh meats, and require storage management. Fresh meats can be less expensive and are easier to process than frozen but are difficult to preserve more than a few days and challenging to minimize microbial growth. Aged, fresh meats grow micro-organisms which impact meat dough quality by developing biogenic amines and shortening mandate time – the time between seaming cans and starting sterilization cook process – for wet pet manufacturers. Figure 2 shows that cats prefer lower biogenic amine diets, which can be achieved by using fresher meat or utilizing an antimicrobial treatment to help maintain fresh character.

    Use of a Palatability Enhancer. Wet pet food is often perceived to be highly appealing to cats, but some cats may be reluctant or refuse to eat a diet altogether. Pet food manufacturers can elevate the profile of wet cat food diets by adding palatability enhancers to the finished diet. Figure 3 shows that the addition of a dry palatant in the chunk component of a chicken-based chunk and gravy diet was statistically preferred to a control diet with no palatant. Palatability performance increases with increasing palatant application rate. All rations were made in the Kemin pilot plant.     Moreover, palatant addition to the wet cat diet can transform an amalgam of animal proteins into a product with a clean, unified consumer aroma. Palatants tested in the Kemin Pilot Plant have changed the perception of cat wet pet diets from one that is gamey or pungent to more pleasant meaty flavors or aroma typical of the retorted foods industry. CONCLUSION There are many factors that can influence the overall consumer experience of a wet pet food brand. Understanding how to make a consistent, appealing product is key to satisfying loyal customers and further gaining market share with new customers. Pet food manufacturers should consider the value of partnering with suppliers that understand the complexities of wet pet food production and make solutions tailored to their specific needs.   By: Gregg Schieffer, Ph.D Associate Scientist-Palatants, Kemin Nutrisurance. Source: Kemin Nutrisurance. 

  1 Euromonitor, 2022. 2 Hagen-Plantinga, E.A., Orlanes, D.F., Bosch, G., Hendriks W.H., van der Poel, A.F.B. Retorting Conditions Affect Palatability and Physical Characteristics of Canned Cat Food. J Nutri Sci. (2017), 6, e23, 1-5. 3 Dainton, A.N., Dogan, H., Aldrich, C.G. The Effects of Select Hydrocolloids on the Processing of Pâté-Style Canned Pet Food. Foods. (2021), 10, 2506-2519. 4 Kemin Internal Document: (SD-23-25564). 5 Kemin Internal Document: (SD-22-25122).

Micro Ingredients Pet supplements on the rise
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4+ MIN

Pet supplements on the rise

Over time, as countries have gradually eased restrictions and fear, pent-up demand and fiscal stimulus measures facilitated market growth in various sectors. Currently, we are witnessing a fusion of pre-pandemic strategies with the accelerated adoption of digital technologies, shaping a new era of market dynamics. Among the products that are developing the most, we find the pet supplements sector, so much so that an analysis by Grand View Research predicts it will reach 1,050 million dollars by 2027.   Current market situation   When we talk about supplements, we are talking about vitamins, minerals, herbs, botanicals, enzymes, amino acids, or other dietary ingredients.
Although the pandemic already seems like something of the past for many, the truth is that some sectors or markets, as is the case with this one in particular, owe a lot to it for the boom they experienced. Free time, little social life, the adoption of more pets, and the increase in time spent with them have made people not only more aware of the health of their animals but also have time to inform themselves about how to sustain it and enhance it over time. This is when the word supplements appears for many owners, and they begin to consider these products as an alternative to adding to the diet of their dog and cat children. The pet food supplementation industry primarily works with vitamins, nutritional supplements production, storage, and distribution among other nutritional supplements that may be critical to a pet's health and growth, including birds, dogs, cats, and other domesticated animals. Products are extensively researched and quality-checked before they are available on the commercial market with the goal of ensuring animal welfare and promoting healthy growth throughout their lives. Some supplements have generic applications, while others address specific problems, such as digestive problems, joint pain, or skin conditions. And while the industry is facing tremendous growth, it is also facing new challenges and complications. Microbiome health ingredients, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics, are of an ingredient category where the most research is being done these days. Prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics generate significant interest in both humans and animals. Specific research is very important in this class of ingredients because the intestinal microbiome of different animal species can vary considerably.   Investigation and development   The increasing rate of pet ownership drives market demand. Several reasons, including personal decisions and medical factors, are causing a growth in the number of people who choose to have pets, such as remaining child-free by choice, the impossibility due to advanced age, and the economic instability that threatens more than an international population. Some of the most common side effects due to supplement consumption include allergic reactions, overdoses, and digestive problems. Some of them may be more serious than others. However, it is one of the main restrictions on the industry's growth. One of the key opportunities to pursue development is the investment obtained for study, development, and innovation. Currently, there is a significant lack of innovation in product development in the supplements sector at an international level. And, if we observe how people's lifestyle and eating consumption habits (and, consequently, their pets) change, it is expected that this will impact the needs, problems, and diseases that arise or disappear with the passing of time. Therefore, more investment is necessary to obtain more resources in understanding the segment to achieve generalized and specific product development without side effects.   The importance of knowing pet supplement consumers
  Knowing the humanization process that has been strongly impacting the entire pet market, it is not surprising that, with the increasing attention paid to product labels, many ingredients that appear in human supplements have moved into categories of pets. If we talk specifically about supplements, we can already identify in the industry that consumers of pet supplements have stronger or more pronounced tendencies and preferences than the average pet owner. These owners (and those in charge of the pet food purchasing decision) who buy supplements are characterized by proactively seeking information about nutrition. The most reliable source for them is their known veterinarians and, secondly, Internet sites: the same sources for seeking advice and information on human nutrition.
Other very reliable sources for pet owners when it comes to obtaining information about any product type or service for their pets (veterinarians, toys, food, exercise) are their friends and family. This is a key factor for all those companies that want to retain customers because they are the ones who, free of charge, share and recommend (and, therefore, spread) the brands they trust.
  Conclusion   The supplements market has a lot of potential today if we analyze and consider all the trends that reach the pet food industry due to the demands and needs imposed on human industries. To achieve sustained growth, it is essential to promote development, research, and innovation.

Source: All Pet Food.

For María Candelaria Carbajo


Vitamins

Vitamins Pet supplements on the rise
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4+ MIN

Nutritional needs of cats and dogs

Pet food can be complete or complementary. Complete pet food is nutritionally complete: providing all the nutrients in the amounts and proportions your pet needs. Complementary pet food (e.g. treats) is designed to be only a part of the diet and it won't meet the nutritional requirements when fed alone. Pet food manufacturers have developed the nutritional expertise to ensure pet food contains the right ingredients in the right amounts to supply the needed nutrients. They often work together with independent nutrition scientists or follow guidelines which have been developed by a group of scientists working together. The broadening knowledge of pet nutrition and food technology has transformed the pet food industry remarkably over the years. It is now widely recognised by the veterinary profession and other stakeholders that improved nutrition is an important factor which helps pets to live longer, healthier lives. Besides water there are 5 key nutrients: Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Vitamins Minerals
The first 3 provide the energy your pet needs for e.g. growth, digestion, temperature regulation and of course activity. Proteins Proteins are made up of amino acids. There are hundreds of different amino acids, but a number of these are required for dogs and cats. Pets can produce some amino acids themselves; those are the so-called non-essential amino acids which do not need to be present in the diet. Others are essential and need to be part of the pet food: for dogs there are 10 essential amino acids, for cats there are 11. Proteins are the building blocks of organs, muscles, bones, blood, immune system and hair and nails. Proteins in pet food can come from various different ingredients, both from animal and vegetable origin like poultry, beef, pork, fish, eggs, corn, rice, peas or soybeans. It's important that the pet eats the right amount of proteins and that the protein can be easily digested and absorbed, which is influenced by the source of the protein and the processing of the food. In prepared pet food, manufacturers generally select a variety of ingredients to provide the required amount and type of proteins/amino acids. Excess proteins which are consumed by the pet are not stored in the body and also not used to make even more muscle tissue. Feeding extra protein in excess of the amount that your pet requires provides no health benefit to your pet. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are used by the body to provide immediate energy for activities and are stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen. Energy use is needed for various body functions like metabolism and the function of the brain and nervous system. There exists no minimum level of carbohydrates which needs to be in pet food, but carbohydrates provide a concentrated source of dietary energy and dietary fibre. There are two types: digestible carbohydrates (starches and sugars) which provide energy and indigestible carbohydrates (fibre) which are important for stool quality and gut motility. Fibres can help in weight management because they are low in calories and help provide the feeling of satiety. The ingredients providing carbohydrates are mainly plant ingredients like corn, barley, peas, rice, wheat and potatoes. Dietary fibre sources include for instance dried beet pulp, wheat bran or soybean hulls. Many sources of carbohydrates also provide other nutrients like protein, fat or vitamins. Because of the manufacturing process of grinding and cooking the carbohydrates become easily digestible. A genetic change in the ancestors of our modern dogs (compared with wolves) allowing them to thrive on a diet rich in starch was a crucial step in their early domestication. Also cats can utilise glucose from digesting starch in their diet. A key exception is the pet's ability to digest lactose (milk sugar) because they have lower levels of the enzyme lactase required to split the lactose into individual sugars. Dietary fat Fats in pet food are a source of essential fatty acids which are needed to make certain hormones and maintain the cell membranes. Certain vitamins (A, D, E and K) can only be absorbed, stored and transported by fat. Dietary fats improve palatability and add texture for greater enjoyment of the food. And of course, fats are a great source of energy because they provide about 2 ½ times the level of energy that proteins or carbohydrates can provide. So especially for active animals fats are important, while at the same time we need to be careful with the fat intake for many indoor pets where controlling fat intake helps them not become overweight or obese. Fats in pet food come from animal and vegetable sources. Two key fatty acid families are the omega-3 and omega-6 (or n-3 and n-6) families. Omega-3 fatty acids are needed for cell membranes and reduces inflammation. Good sources of omega-3 fatty acids are fish, shellfish and flaxseed. Omega-6 fatty acids are important to aid in the process of repairing tissue and are found in vegetable oils. Minerals & Vitamins The major or macro minerals needed in the body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride and magnesium. The amounts needed of the trace elements are much smaller and these include for instance iron, copper and selenium. Vitamins are nutrients needed in very small amounts, but they enable many functions in the body. Dogs and cats cannot make all the vitamins they need; so these must be supplied by the food. Minerals and vitamins are partly provided by the ingredients which deliver the major nutrients of protein, carbohydrates and fat and the other minerals and vitamins are added to the recipe. by FEDIAF 

Vitamins Pet supplements on the rise
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3+ MIN

How important is choline for cats

Choline is a vitamin-like component that plays an important role in liver health and nerve transmission, and thereby also cognitive function and muscle function in cats. As said above, cats produce some choline naturally, but due to its importance, pet food brands are advised to add this nutrient into the food. Krill – a natural source of phosphatidylcholine Choline is available in various forms, choline chloride, lecithin, or choline bitartrate. The commonly used one is choline chloride which is 12 times less bioavailable than the choline found in krill (phosphatidylcholine) Krill meal is made from Antarctic krill (Euphausia Superba), which is a crustacean related to shrimp. The choline found in krill is all-natural and in form of phosphatidylcholine. Krill is also rich in phospholipid omega-3s, marine proteins, and astaxanthin. herefore, one of the ways to increase choline intake in cats is to include in their diet a pet food with krill meal, which provides choline. Choline - an essential nutrient for cats In 2018, a survey of the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention estimated that 60% of cats and 56% of dogs in the United States were overweight or obese. This has serious health consequences for pets, including fat accumulation in the liver. A balanced, healthy diet for cats accompanied by regular physical activity is essential for overall health. In addition, nutritional supplements may help to reduce the risk of weight-related issues or optimize nutrition for cats. One way to do that is to provide cats with pet food with krill meal containing choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine is one of the most fundamental molecules that make up the living cell. Being an essential component of the cell membrane, it is also the most abundant in a class of phospholipids known as 'essential phospholipids', as it forms the structural barrier that surrounds the cell. Choline and its metabolites have multiple physiological roles in the body which are important for the building of cell membranes, liver fat transport to prevent fatty liver, nerve impulse transmission in brain and muscles, and provision of methyl groups that maintain liver, heart, and kidney health.  What is choline essential for? 1. Building of cell membranes Phosphatidylcholine is an integral part of almost every cell in the animal body, being a major constituent of cell membranes. It's also important for normal cellular membrane composition and repair. Its role in cell membrane integrity is vital to all basic biological processes such as the information flow within cells from DNA to RNA to proteins. 2. Liver fat transport to prevent fatty liver Choline improves and maintains a healthy liver function and can aid in the proper metabolism of fat. In other words, choline is very important for the proper functioning and regulation of the liver and gallbladder. This vitamin-like substance aids in hormone production and minimizes fat accumulation in the liver by regulating fat and cholesterol metabolism. 3. Nerve impulse transmission in the brain and muscles Choline is needed for the proper transmission of nerve impulses and is a constituent of acetylcholine, the major neurotransmitter. This is essential in supporting brain development, the learning process, the nerve transmitters and affects the overall mental well-being of pets. 4. Providing methyl groups that maintain liver, heart, and kidney health Being a structural element of cell membranes (as phosphatidylcholine), choline supports lipid transport and acts as a source of methyl groups (after it is transformed into betaine) for various chemical reactions in the body. By controlling protein function and gene expression, choline is important for the proper function of the heart and blood vessels, nerve system, liver and reproduction. Therefore, we can say that choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine is an essential nutrient that cats require for a healthy and happy life. It supports muscle function, cognitive function and memory, it helps maintain normal cholesterol values, and protecting the liver from toxicity (without phosphatidylcholine, fat and cholesterol accumulate in the liver due to reduced low-density lipoprotein levels). Moreover, choline can prevent the appearance of the fatty liver syndrome and also support normal liver function. It can reduce insulin requirements in cats with diabetes, and diminishes seizure frequency, being important in the treatment of epilepsy. By Qrill Pet   


Minerals

Minerals Pet supplements on the rise
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3+ MIN

What Nutrients are Essential for My Pet?

 Here's a breakdown of all the essential nutrients according to the  Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) that are required for foods to be called complete and balanced for adult and growing cats and dogs. Included are also links to other blog posts that describe some of these nutrients and why they're essential. Protein and Amino Acids While the amount may differ between dogs and cats, and between adults and seniors, all pets have a minimum requirement for protein to make muscle in the body and help in many important body functions. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and there are approximately a dozen essential amino acids in addition to a minimum of overall protein that all pets need: Arginine Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Cystine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Valine Taurine (cats)
  Fats and Fatty Acids All pets have a minimum amount of total fat that they need in their diet and there are also some specific types of fatty acids that are also required for different lifestages. Overall fats and specific types of fatty acids help your pet maintain a healthy skin/coat, regulate inflammation, and aid in development in growing pets. Linoleic Acid Arachidonic Acid (cats) Alpha-Linoleic Acid (growth) EPA + DHA (growth)
  Minerals  Minerals, some of which are also called electrolytes, are critical to keeping fluid balance, growing and maintaining bones, and helping to regulate many processes running in a pet's body, such as movement of muscles. The amounts required can vary between growing and adult animals, and there is also a required ratio of certain minerals such as calcium and phosphorus for optimal health, especially for growing large breed puppies. Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Chloride Magnesium Iron Copper Manganese Zinc Iodine Selenium
  Vitamins  Cats and dogs require many of the same vitamins as we do (except for Vitamin C, which they can make themselves!), but the amounts can be very different. One example is Vitamin D, where dogs need less than 1/10th the amount that humans do, so we have to be very careful about using human products (or any supplements for that matter!) in pets to avoid toxic amounts of vitamin D. Vitamins perform many functions in the body from supporting the immune system to breaking down food for energy, and are either water soluble (the B vitamins) or fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K). The essential vitamins for dogs and cats are listed below with common alternate names that you may see on your pet food ingredient lists. Vitamin A (retinol) Vitamin D (cholecalciferol) Vitamin E (tocopherol) Vitamin K (phylloguinone, cats) Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Niacin (Vitamin B3) Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) Folic Acid/Folate (Vitamin B9) Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Choline
   Where Can I Go To Learn More?  If you'd like to learn more about the exact amounts required of these nutrients in different lifestages and species, booklets are also available online from the National Resource Council with more details on each of these essential nutrients for dogs and cats. How Do I Know My Pet Is Getting All These Nutrients? Foods that have AAFCO nutritional adequacy statements that state they are complete and balanced have to include all these essential nutrients and stay between the minimum requirements and any maximums. Providing extra through supplements may actually harm your pet because you may unknowingly be providing a toxic amount of some nutrients that have narrow safety ranges! We recommend only giving supplements with any of these essential nutrients when recommended specifically by your veterinarian. by Deborah E. Linder, DVM, MS, DACVIM (Nutrition)

Minerals Pet supplements on the rise
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1+ MIN

Darling Ingredients Inc. Completes Acquisition of Brazil's Largest Independent Rendering Company, FASA Group

The company first announced the acquisition in May 2022 for a purchase price of approximately R$2.8 billion Brazilian Real in cash ($542.6 million USD at today's exchange rate), plus or minus various closing adjustments and a contingent payment based on future earnings growth. As part of the transaction, Darling Ingredients has acquired 14 plants that process more than 1.3 million metric tons annually, with an additional two plants under construction. "Brazil will play a big role in feeding a growing world population, which makes it a premier location to grow our specialty ingredients business," Randall C. Stuewe, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Darling Ingredients. "FASA is a well-run business, will be immediately accretive and further de-risks the supply chain by providing an additional source of non-food based, low-carbon waste fats to be used in the production of renewable diesel and sustainable aviation fuel." About Darling Darling Ingredients Inc. (NYSE: DAR) is the largest publicly traded company turning edible by-products and food waste into sustainable products and a leading producer of renewable energy. Recognized as a sustainability leader, the company operates 250 plants in 17 countries and repurposes nearly 15% of the world's meat industry waste streams into value-added products, such as green energy, renewable diesel, collagen, fertilizer, animal proteins and meals and pet food ingredients. To learn more, visit darlingii.com. Follow us on LinkedIn. Contact: Suann Guthrie
VP, Investor Relations, Sustainability & Communications
(469) 214-8202, [email protected]


Preservatives

Preservatives Pet supplements on the rise
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2+ MIN

APC joins the All Pet Food family

ABOUT APC Our story began in 1981 when APC scientists discovered the powerful role plasma derived functional proteins play in helping support and maintain normal immune function in animals. With a commitment to research and a passion to improve the lives of animals, APC has since grown to become the global leader in the manufacture and sales of blood-derived functional plasma proteins and red blood cell products. Our ingredients are used in animal feed diets and other industries to add value through the unique properties that positively impact billions of animals – and plants – each year. Today APC employs 500+ people in 8 countries with 17 manufacturing facilities worldwide. Our passion to watch animals and plants thrive is at the core of our corporate mission. MODE OF ACTION Inflammation and an overactive immune response to stressors takes a toll on animals. People too – think about how difficult it is to go about your daily routine when you aren't feeling well. The same thing happens with pigs, poultry, companion animals – and even fish! Finding ways to help support a normal immune and inflammatory response isimportant to keeping animals healthy and productive. APC has spent years researching the mode  of action of plasma –basically how plasma works. The mode of action of plasma is actually very simple. Plasma is comprised of a complex mixture of functional proteins (we call them FPs for short) that include transferrin, lysozymes, growth factors, cytokines, immunoglobulins and many other components that have a profound, positive impact on animals. Consumed orally, the FPs don't interfere with the body's natural immune response to inflammation, but instead they help the immune system to respond more quickly and efficiently. This helps animals to use their energy for productive functions instead of using it to fight the stressor. FPs help to minimize the effects of stressors and get animals back to normal quickly, effectively and consistently. APC's plasma FPs are formulated with other ingredients nutritionally important to animals to target a specific problem and the appropriate response. Through research and working with our customers, APC fine-tunes the appropriate level of FPs in the diet to help solve the problems caused by common stressors. The result is a fast, visual response in the animal, allowing them to thrive. WORLD PRESENCE     With APC you will find high quality products anywhere in the world. Visit APC SHOWCASE in All Pet Food Source: All Pet Food

Preservatives Pet supplements on the rise
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10+ MIN

How Antioxidants Keep Products Fresh and Pets Healthy

Antioxidants are powerful molecules that serve two purposes in pet foods. The first is to keep the food fresh, mainly by preventing the fats and oils from going rancid through a process known as lipid oxidation. The second is to keep the pet healthy by preventing free radicals in the body from damaging cells and having a deleterious effect on various biological functions. These two purposes for antioxidant addition may create confusion for vigilant pet parent label readers. The required nomenclature for antioxidants may also raise eyebrows. 'The Association of American Feed Control Officials requires all animal food to use consistent, approved names for each ingredient,' said Eric Altom, technical nutritionist, animal health and nutrition, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, N.Y. 'An ingredient that contains strategic antioxidant properties may look like a non-natural material because of the required name.' There are many sources and forms of antioxidants. Isolated antioxidant ingredients, for example, may be extracted directly from foods, such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) from citrus; however, it is possible to also replicate the structure of vitamins in the laboratory using chemicals, e.g., synthetic vitamins. Ingredient legends do not discriminate between the two. Synthetic antioxidants, on the other hand, are just that. They are chemical combinations recognized as being cost-effective preservatives. Such ingredients often have complex chemical names, such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidants may also be delivered through whole foods, namely fruits, vegetables and herbs. Extracts have also become quite common. These are concentrated forms neutralized for flavor and aroma. Assisting with shelf life Cats and dogs require fat in their diets and in greater amounts than humans. Fat not only provides energy, it is critical for proper cellular, hormonal and nerve function. It also contributes to the flavor and texture of the food, while keeping coats shiny. Fats readily go rancid if not carefully protected. This is when they develop objectionable flavors and odors. There's no way to prevent it completely, only to slow it, and there's no recovery. Fats degrade when fatty acids react with air, moisture or other compounds and break down into free fatty acids and other unstable compounds. Oxidative rancidity, also known as auto-oxidation, occurs in the presence of oxygen. Thus, the first step for delaying the inevitable is proper packaging and sealing.   Hydrolytic rancidity, also called hydrolysis or enzymatic oxidation, occurs in the presence of moisture and the absence of air. This normally is accomplished through enzymatic peroxidation, where enzymes found naturally in plant oils and animal fats catalyze reactions between water and oil.   A third type of fat degradation is microbial rancidity which occurs when enzymes from bacteria, mold or yeast break down the fat. Such excessive microbial growth usually visually renders the food inedible. Higher temperatures, light, water, metal ions and biological catalysts may accelerate reactions. The presence and placement of unsaturated fatty acids on the fat molecule also influences the rate of degradation. Thus, fat selection comes into play when taking steps to delay degradation.  In general, the more polyunsaturated fatty acids on a fat molecule, the faster it will go rancid. This is due to the unstable double bonds that participate in the various degradation processes. Antioxidant systems containing different combinations of natural phenols, vitamins and organic acids may prevent or slow oxidation. Fat degradation is an issue in all types of pet foods, with longer shelf life products such as dried kibble and jerky-style snacks being the most affected. But it is not just the inherent fat in meat, or the bulk oils added to recipes that may go rancid; specialty, better-for-pet ingredients containing polyunsaturated fatty acids are very unstable and highly prone to oxidation. This includes ingredients such as Omega-3 fatty acids, whole grains and nuts. 'Oxidation is a hot topic in the pet food industry,' said Robb Caseria, managing director, Videka LLC, Kalamazoo, Mich. 'Finding the antioxidant system that will preserve a pet food's sensorial and nutritional properties throughout its shelf life is often a headache for pet food manufacturers.'  Auto-oxidation – a chain reaction  Auto-oxidation occurs in three stages, with the first being the initiation. It is here where molecular oxygen combines with unsaturated fatty acids, producing hydroperoxides and peroxyl free radicals, both of which are highly reactive and unstable. The second stage is called propagation and occurs when these unstable byproducts of the first stage react with other lipids. This starts a chain reaction, with the reaction supplying its own accelerant.   At this point there is no turning back for the fat, as it is in a continuous cyclical oxidative degradation process that will only end upon the final stage, which is aptly known as termination. This can occur when the free radicals become highly concentrated and begin to react together, and by doing so, stop further reactions. Termination can also occur when reactions yield unreactive compounds, thus preventing further propagation. Reactions will also cease when an antioxidant enters the scenario. But at this point, any degradation that has already occurred is permanent. The fat cannot repair itself. If objectionable flavors and odors have developed, they will remain. Initial rancid notes come from the secondary products produced during the initiation stage of auto-oxidation. When the peroxides eventually break down, they decompose into various aldehydes, ketones and acids that exert additional, and typically more putrid flavors and odors.   'An oxidized pet food will be perceived by pet owners as a sign of poor quality, or even a danger to their animal's health,' Caseria said. 'And actually, they are not completely wrong. The altered chemical structure of lipids makes them less bioavailable for the animals. So even though oxidation won't harm a pet, it can certainly damage the food's nutritional value. 'Limiting oxidation is crucial to preserve the shelf stability and nutritional quality of a pet food,' Caseria said. Adding antioxidants  The most common approach to inhibit lipid auto-oxidation is to include antioxidants in the formulation. This is often done throughout the supply chain, particularly with kibble manufacturing. 'Choosing the right place and the right moment for their addition is crucial,' Caseria said. 'Antioxidants should be added as early as possible, as well as regularly throughout the manufacturing process.' The fight against oxidation commonly starts at the renderer's plant, where antioxidants are added in with the raw materials used to produce the fats, oils and meals that will go into the kibble. 'Additional antioxidants may also be added directly to the final meals and oils by the renderer prior to packaging,' Caseria said. 'The fight then continues to the pet food manufacturer's plant. When meals and oils are stored for a long period before being processed, or if they have not been stabilized at the renderer's facility, pet food manufacturers may add antioxidants to protect them during extrusion.' For extra protection with kibble and dried snacks, antioxidants may be sprayed on sealing each piece to ensure lipid preservation throughout the product's shelf life. Traditional synthetic antioxidants are very effective, easy to use and low cost. However, being chemically derived, they are undesirable in today's clean label environment. In response, formulators are embracing clean label antioxidants, with the most common options classified as tocopherols (vitamin E) and high-phenolic plant extracts.  'Chemical antioxidants are liabilities in the clean label movement,' said Robert Ames, senior business development manager, Corbion, Lenexa, Kan., which markets natural antioxidants.  Kerry Courchaine, director of technical services, Darling Ingredients, Irving, Texas, said, 'Where natural antioxidants were once only requested by premium and super-premium pet food brands, we now receive natural requests from mid-market pet food brands.' Mixed tocopherols and botanical extracts are added to many of Darling Ingredients' rendered products for pet food formulating. 'At times, a rendering plant may choose to use a natural chelator, such as citric acid or ascorbic acid, to bind free-radicals when rendering challenging raw materials with the potential for high ash content, which might otherwise promote oxidation during the rendering process,' Courchaine said. 'Our facilities use a variety of natural antioxidant formulas, whether specified by a customer, or necessary due to some unique challenges of the rendered products.' The technical team constantly monitors each pet food ingredient facility to determine the best natural option available to prevent oxidation. In recent years, a poultry industry trend has been to move toward all-vegetarian diets for their birds. 'These diets translate to higher levels of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are more prone to oxidation,' Courchaine said. 'The move away from rendered by-product meals toward more label-friendly rendered proteins, such as chicken meal and turkey meal, exacerbates the oxidation problem. These meat meals tend to be higher in ash, a source of oxidizing free radicals, such as copper and iron. 'Chicken meal and turkey meal are also the products of such raw materials as edible necks, backs, frames, skins, and bone residue from deboning operations,' she said. 'These raw parts harbor strong oxidizing agents, such as chlorine and peracetic acid, used in carcass rinses.' Altom added, 'To ensure proper shelf life and long-term stability, it is critical to control the oxidative-reduction reactions. One way to support this foundation is to provide organic trace minerals. These are minerals bound to a ligand, a protein or amino acid, which reduces the antagonistic effects in a diet matrix and increases mineral bioavailability. By limiting the reactive capabilities of metals, you can help reduce substrates available for destructive reactions.' In high-meat and fresh-meat pet foods, microencapsulated acidulants help with stability. 'These acidulants, such as lactic and citric acids, may be derived from natural fermentation processes,' Altom said. 'Through the strategic use of microencapsulation, we are able to better control the pH of the total matrix. By reducing the pH of the matrix, we can create a hurdle for bacteria growth, prevent loss of moisture and natural flavonoids, and support more shelf-stable products. 'Many natural antioxidants can be pH sensitive for optimal performance,' Altom continued. 'Therefore, leveraging an encapsulated acidulant may help enrich the environment and help maintain optimal performance of antioxidants.' Kemin Industries, Des Moines, Iowa, has varied options to support pet food companies in assuring product freshness. In addition to producing time-tested synthetic antioxidants, the company has actively been involved in the antioxidant shift toward natural plant-based options. This includes mixed-tocopherols and plant-based extracts. 'Knowing where in the process to add antioxidants, how much to add and what antioxidant to use are critical to understanding how to stabilize pet foods,' said Jim Mann, senior global product manager with Kemin Nutrisurance's Antioxidant and Food Safety Platform. 'As pet food formulations change and use novel ingredients and more unsaturated fats, this can become more challenging and can require extensive testing and collaboration with antioxidant suppliers to identify the best antioxidant stabilization strategy.' Antioxidant usage in shelf-stable wet foods is very different than with kibble. It gets even more complicated with refrigerated fresh products. 'Antioxidants can be added to the meat ingredients to help maintain their high quality and palatability,' Mann said. 'In addition, antioxidants can potentially help with color retention and palatability of canned food. 'The oxidative stability of fresh and frozen food, or even freeze-dried food produced from fresh or frozen meats, is often overlooked,' he said. 'Adding the appropriate antioxidant during emulsification or prior to freezing can help protect the quality of these products. Antioxidants can extend their shelf-life and maintain palatability if added early in their manufacturing process.' For quality of life, too In addition to ensuring product quality, antioxidants help maintain quality of life. The antioxidants for this purpose are generally those found in fruits and vegetables. Common antioxidants include vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and certain compounds called carotenoids, such as lutein and beta-carotene. They may be delivered in pet food through the addition of fruit and vegetable ingredients, including powders, concentrates and purées. The antioxidants may also be added in the form of isolated ingredients. 'Research shows each antioxidant benefits the immune system uniquely, so one antioxidant at high levels is not as effective as a group of antioxidants acting together,' Altom said. Jeannie Swedberg, director of business development, Tree Top Inc., Selah Wash., said, 'Powerful antioxidants contained in these ingredients can help the body — human or animal — fight free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-containing molecules that can damage cell membranes and enzymes, which makes the nervous and immune system especially vulnerable. Free radicals are considered factors in disease progression and premature aging.' Free radicals result from oxidation, a natural process that occurs during digestion, exercise or simply breathing. They are produced in greater than normal amounts when pets are sick, elderly, exposed to pollution or suffer from poor nutrition. The more free radicals in the body, the greater the potential for irrevocable damage. That's because once free radicals form, they can start a chain reaction, damaging healthy cells, which in turn can contribute to various afflictions. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by being oxidized themselves, thus preventing free radical damage. The right amount or combination of antioxidants in pet food may assist with easing the pains and signs of aging. They help build immunity and temper allergies while also supporting overall health and wellness in pets. 'Nutritionally supporting the immune system may be especially critical for young animals,' Altom said. 'In puppies, for example, the immune system is still developing at the time it is being challenged with vaccinations and exposure to disease-causing agents. With the addition of antioxidants, a high-quality puppy diet can aid in the development of a strong immune system to help maintain good health and protect against viruses, bacteria and parasites. 'Recent research also examined the effect of aging on immune responses,' Altom said. 'The findings indicate that as dogs and cats age, immune cell responses may decline. Including antioxidants in the diet can reverse the age-related decrease in immune cell function.' Fruits and vegetables not only help meet a pet's dietary needs, they also supply great tag appeal. 'Front-of-packaging panel promotion or call-outs about the benefits these ingredients provide will attract the attention of caring pet parents,' Swedberg said. As premium pet foods and treats continue to be popular and contain an increasing variety of proteins, fats and healthy ingredients, protecting those formulations will remain a challenge for processors, requiring close attention to antioxidants. By Donna Berry - Petfood Processing


Palatants

Palatants Pet supplements on the rise
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4+ MIN

Palatability: The importance of flavor in pet nutrition

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many people adopted dogs and cats to fight loneliness and bring joy to their families. Abinpet data confirm this increase in the number of pets in households: the dog and cat population in Brazil increased 3.5% and 6% in 2021 and 2022, respectively. However, not only has the number of pets in homes increased, but the relationship between owners and their pets has also evolved. Owners have adopted a more humanized approach towards their pets, treating them like children. According to the Euromonitor survey, 68.6% of respondents globally say they consider their pets family member¹. Pet owners wish their pets to have their values and lifestyles. According to a Mintel survey, 65% of German pet owners agree that their pet's diet has a direct impact on their emotional well-being². This indicates that the pet owners' are more concerned with their pets' health and nutrition has changed, and are now considered essential expenses. Promoting pet well-being and improving their quality of life have become priorities. The humanization trend has led many 'pet parents' to seek pet foods that contain the same ingredients and meet the same claims when purchasing their own and their family's foods. For instance, Mintel data shows that 38% of pet owners in the US seek natural foods for their pets³. In the UK, 53% of pet food buyers agree that those made with sustainable ingredients, such as byproducts from other food production, are more attractive². As a result of this new pet humanization trend, pet food companies have changed their production practices. In addition to sustainability, health, and trends such as Upcycling Food considerations, the industry has also focused on palatability. Pet food companies have given more attention to the characteristics of their products, including texture, aroma, perception, and, of course, flavor.   WHAT IS PALATABILITY   Just like with humans, food appreciation plays a key role in pet diets, ensuring that they consume the required amount of nutrients. But what is the role of palatability? Food palatability involves a combination of factors, such as texture, shape, odor, flavor, and mouthfeel. It also plays a key role in improving the flavor of foods for special diets, balancing the composition of essential nutrients and vitamins with a pleasant flavor for animals. In other words, palatability is related to food savoriness and desirability. After all, dogs and cats have their own preferences and may reject foods that do not meet their individual taste. The primary factor that affect palatability are:
    In short, palatability plays an essential role in dog and cat nutrition. Even though the food contains all the required nutrients, it will not be effective if it does stimulate the animals' appetite.   THE ROLE OF YEAST EXTRACT IN PALATABILITY   Choosing the right ingredients and flavor enhancers in pet food production plays an essential role in market differentiation. It increases the chances of getting the palatability right and, consequently, being appreciated by pets. The most frequently used natural flavor enhancers are yeasts, essential oils, fats, vegetable oils, organic acids, spray-dried animal plasma, protein hydrolyzate, distillates, or food roasting and heating. Adding yeast extracts to food stimulates the palate of dogs and cats, as they have an attractive flavor. Yeast extracts provides Umami, sweet, and sour flavors, optimizing food consumption and the utilization of specific amino acids. Yeast extracts can be incorporated in the food mash or as coating, together with other flavor enhancers. allowing its utilization in a variety of pet food formulations, from extruded dry diets to nutraceutical compounds.   IMPROVING PET FOOD PALATABILITY   Since 2003, Biorigin has used biotechnology to enhance the flavor of a wide range of human foods and to offer yeast-based solutions to increase the attractiveness of pet foods The company has recently launched the innovative PalaUp product line, which applies all its know-how in pet food ingredient production. The PalaUp line is clean label and sustainable. It provides Umami flavor, and specific meat and roast chicken notes, bringing the taste buds of the owner and their pet closer together. It can be used in different applications, and combined with different arrays of ingredients to provide unique sensory experiences to pets. By applying Biorigin's extensive knowledge in human nutrition, PalaUp contributes to make pets' lives even more pleasant and humanized! For more information on the PalaUp line, CLICK HERE. By: Biorigin Sources: ¹ Premiumisation in Pet Care: Inflation and Beyond (Euromonitor, 2023)  ² Patent insights: innovations shaping pet food (Mintel, 2022)  ³ A year of innovation in pet food and products (Mintel, 2023)

Palatants Pet supplements on the rise
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5+ MIN

Palatability: the importance of producing palatable food

In a study done by professionals from Australian and New Zealander universities, research analysis and compilation were carried out to gather information about the importance of palatability and its drivers in certain pet foods.   The pet food industry and growth does not stop The pet food industry is an important sector of the rapidly growing pet care market. However, while the number of new and innovative products keeps growing, research and development to assess their performance follow traditional palatability methodology. These focus on analyzing the amount of food consumed by using one and two-bowl tests. Nowadays, we know that, although foods are primarily formulated to provide complete and balanced nutrition, palatability is a crucial factor in determining the success or failure of a product in the marketplace and its likelihood of repurchase.   Nutritional requirements of dogs and cats Cats and dogs are members of the carnivore order. While the name implies that both are specialized carnivores, each species originated from different branches: the domestic cat is part of the Felidae family, whereas the domestic dog is part of the Canidae family. Nutritional requirements, feeding behavior, and food selection choices vary considerably between the two species. Compared to their carnivorous wolf ancestors, today's domestic dogs can consume food of both animal and non-animal origin and are, therefore, classified as facultative carnivores. For their part, cats are one of the most recently domesticated mammal species. They are solitary hunters who often hunt prey much smaller than their body mass, requiring them to do it several times a day to meet their needs. They are classified as intermittent eaters who consume multiple small meals over a 24-hour period, and are generally much more picky, compared to dogs: they can detect small differences in the food composition offered to them. Unlike dogs, they are obligate carnivores in their methods of ingesting, digesting, and metabolizing meat-based diets, as without animal protein, cats can suffer from severe nutritional deficiencies.   How do they behave? Both cats and dogs tend to display neophilic behavior, defined as a tendency for new and unknown food, as opposed to neophobia, the avoidance of it. In some cases, already somewhat extreme, cats can show metaphilia, the demand to change a portion of food once it becomes familiar to their palates.   Preferences and palatability With the increasing number of pet foods available on the market, palatability has become the main criterion used to measure product performance. These foods' physical and chemical properties, linked to the promotion or suppression of eating behavior during the preabsorption period, are those that define, to a large extent, whether or not their owners will buy one food again or not, since they have a direct relationship with the perception of pleasure or taste during consumption.   Palatability tests The consumption test (how much food is consumed over time) is the most widely used technique to assess food palatability. It can be applied by seeking to analyze the palatability of a single product or by comparing more than one with another to determine group preferences. One-bowl test In this test, a single product is presented to a defined number of animals and repeated over several days to eliminate environmental influences. It is useful to reflect more accurately the different options provided at homes. Currently, the problem with this test is that it does not show a real preference for any specific food and, furthermore, it does not provide enough information to be able to certify an improvement in a product. Two-bowl test The two-bowl test is the other traditional method of palatability testing for research and involves presenting 2 foods simultaneously to an animal for a defined period, allowing the animal to choose and show its preference.   Behavior as a measure of palatability Pets can't speak about their preferences and tastes, so studies should focus on assessing their behavioral response to various foods to obtain an additional objective measure of palatability. Regarding this, in the case of cats, for example, in a study by Van den Bos, it was possible to identify certain physical responses that seemed to be related to liking or aversion to different foods, also known as taste reactivity tests. The taste for food was distinguished by licking and sniffing their feeder, licking their lips, and grooming their face. Food refusal was differentiated by licking and sniffing food and nose licking. Another defining aspect is the time cats spend sniffing food.   Biological aspects In addition to differences in feeding behavior and nutrient requirements, the main factors influencing cat and dog food preferences also vary. In dogs, preference for odor has been identified as the likely palatability driver in a study (Hall, 2017) in which dogs were presented with two bowls of 1 out of 4 chicken-flavored foods and, in 89 % of the tests, consumed more of the food they had initially selected. In another study carried out by Roberts in 2018, it was concluded that dogs could choose their preferred diet before trying it, and it is possible that the smell was a key factor in making this picking. In the case of cats, they use both smell and taste to detect and select food. Although not as highly developed as dogs, they use their smell sense to recognize both new and trusted scents. Food preference is often strongly influenced by their mothers' food choices and exposure to food during pregnancy via amniotic fluid, even in the first few years of life. This limited exposure to different foods in their first years can result in a preference for that taste, known as the primacy effect. However, it may not be seen in practice, as some cats show neophilia to various options. Additionally, when cats face two familiar and abundant types of food, they will eat a mix of both to obtain a wide variety of nutrients and maximize long-term nutritional benefits. Regarding food selection, several studies have proven that the most influential aspect of the decision is taste, smell, and color.   The future can't wait! Pet food palatability is a key aspect for both manufacturers and pet owners. Currently, traditional palatability testing methods are used to assess the acceptance and preference of balanced pet foods and snacks. However, there are gaps in our knowledge in this area, and more research is needed to determine the fundamental factors responsible for choosing one food over another. Modern techniques such as metabolomics can unlock this knowledge, but, we'll say it again: investment is needed for its successful development. Taking a collective approach that uses both traditional palatability testing methods and modern testing can be the fair and balanced way to determine the optimal level of ingredient inclusion, maximize palatability, recognize the nutrients responsible for driving preference, and more.   Source: All Pet Food Magazine

For María Candelaria Carbajo


Formulation

Formulation Pet supplements on the rise
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4+ MIN

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Yeast nucleotide advancements in pet food

What is the nucleotide?
  From a genetic point of view, nucleotides are an important part of cells. It is a monomer that makes up DNA (genes) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) and plays an important role in cell structure, metabolism, energy and regulatory functions. From the perspective of application, nucleotides play an important role in the immune regulation, brain development and intestinal flora improvement of pets, especially newborn and young pets, and can also improve the immunity of pets. From a source, nucleotides are also found in food. For example, fish, animal organs, fungi, etc., of which yeast is particularly rich in nucleic acid content, and yeast nucleotide content is more abundant after industrial nucleotide enzymolysis.   Why the nucleotides need to added in pet food?
  Studies have found that although the pet body can synthesise nucleotides itself, the nucleotides synthesised in the body cannot meet the needs of various tissues with high metabolism, such as the immune system and intestinal tissues. The lack of nucleotides in pet food can affect the heart, liver, intestine and immune function of pets.   The application trend of yeast nucleotides in pet food   Yeast nucleotides improve pet intestinal health   Nucleotides play an important role in the gut, promoting the growth, development and repair of intestinal cells. Nucleotides can stimulate the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the body and effectively reduce the probability of diarrhoea in young pets. Nutritional studies have shown that injection of nucleotides and the addition of nucleotides to infant formula can improve intestinal health and immune system development in infants and young children. Because nucleotides and small peptides can maintain intestinal health, adding yeast source nucleotide nutrition to pet food fed by young dogs and cats can effectively improve the diet structure and promote intestinal health of young pets.   The addition of yeast nucleotide to pet cat food can improve the balance of intestinal flora. The experimental study of yeast nucleotide in pets conducted by Beijing Academy of Agricultural Sciences shows that the abundance of bifidobacteria in the added yeast nucleotide group is higher than that in the treatment group, and the lactobacillus abundance in the yeast hydrolysis group is also higher than that in the control group and other treatment groups. The results showed that adding yeast nucleotide improved the intestinal tract of pet cats better than other treatment groups. (Figure 1)     At the same time, the effects of yeast nucleotide addition on the contents of indole and skatole in pet cat faeces were detected. The test results showed that after the addition of yeast nucleotide, yeast nucleotide significantly reduced the contents of skatole and indole in faeces, effectively increased the content of bifidobacterium in pet faeces, and improved the intestinal health of pets (Figure 2).   Yeast nucleotides improve the immune system   When pets have some external conditions, such as intestinal damage, rapid growth, too little protein intake or stress problems, the immune system is triggered, the amount of self-synthesis is far from enough to provide support. So this extra intake of exogenous nucleotides optimises its physiological function. Pet mucous membranes, bone marrow, hematopoietic cells and lymphocytes, these tissues are more dependent on exogenous dietary nucleic acids as a remedy pathway. Studies have shown that pet food supplemented with yeast nucleotides can increase phagocytic activity of pet leukocytes and improve the ability of lymphocyte division. After addition of yeast nucleotide, pet vaccination resulted in increased anti-parvovirus antibody titers at 14 days, increased non-specific immunoglobulin levels at weaning, and improved peripheral blood mononuclear cells.   Yeast nucleotide strong freshening agent   Sodium inosine (IMP) and sodium guanylate (GMP) mixtures are used as fresheners in pet food. Umami, as one of the five basic tastes, can bring pleasure to pets and represents the characteristic flavour of most amino acids and nucleotides Yeast nucleotides are added with nuclease, so that the nuclease in yeast is decomposed into four free nucleotides (UMP,GMP,CMP,AMP). The four free nucleotides in the product have very good flavour and nutrition enhancement, and are suitable for pet food industry with better flavour.   The application prospect of yeast nucleotide feed additives   The raw materials of yeast nucleotides are extensive, the extraction technology is mature, rich in nucleotides can promote the healthy development of the intestines of pets, improve disease resistance and immunity, in addition, its degradation products such as IMP, GMP, etc. are themselves a kind of substances that affect the flavour, can indirectly improve the nutritional value of pet food, and commodity value, which is of great significance in pet nutrition.   Source: All About Feed.

Formulation Pet supplements on the rise
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4+ MIN

What food category does my pet need?

Years later, the well-known "Ken-L Ration," canned horse meat, was born in the United States, and thus the first wet diet appeared. Later, in the 1940s, nutrition programs for life stages began. In the fifties, the first therapeutic diets came out, and in the seventies, we saw the first personalized diets by race. It was not until 1980 that the National Research Council published nutritional requirements for dogs and cats. Thanks to this, the nutritional bases are established, along with other guides such as AAFCO or FEDIAF, to provide balanced nutrition to pets. The following are, in very general terms, some examples, since the specific amounts may vary depending on the food formulation: Dog nutritional requirements: Proteins
Puppies: Minimum 22%
Adults: Minimum 18% Fats
Puppies: Minimum 8.5%
Adults: Minimum 5.5% Fiber
Varies depending on the specific formula needs. Vitamins and trace minerals
Specific to the dog's needs and life stage

2. Cat nutritional requirements Proteins
Puppies: Minimum 30%
Adults: Minimum 26% Fats
Puppies: Minimum 9%
Adults: Minimum 9% Fiber
It varies depending on the specific needs of the food. Vitamins and trace minerals
Specific to the cat's needs and life stage. Over the years, a wide variety of foods have emerged. With this, the market has had to organize into types or food categories to provide the consumer with the nutrition they are looking for to meet the needs of each pet.  In many countries, pet foods are subject to regulations and standards set by authorities. This includes ensuring that foods meet certain nutritional standards and clear labeling. An important point to consider with any food type is to follow the manufacturer's recommendations for the appropriate daily amount based on your pet's age, size, and specific needs. Currently, there is a clear definition of food for dogs, cats, birds, rodents, reptiles, etc. However, the nutritional requirement varies depending on factors, such as age, size, activity level, and specific pet needs. So, in addition to species, pet food should be classified by these subcategories. Within the wide variety of pet food categories, there is one established with the economic capacity of each pet parent (in addition to the digestibility of its nutrients): Economy, Standard, or Premium, in very general terms. Within each segment mentioned above, there are other more complex subcategories. Let's talk about some of these: Dry food
This type is the most widely sold in the world and usually contains a balanced mix of essential nutrients. It is produced under the extrusion process to achieve certain physicochemical characteristics. Some nutrients, especially micronutrients, can degrade with processing and time, so it is important to follow the manufacturer's recommendations regarding expiration date and storage. Wet food
This type has a high-water content. Some pets prefer it because of its texture and flavor. It is recommended as a diet supplement of dry foods to promote dental health, as wet food may not be as abrasive. Semi-moist food
It is a combination of the above. BARF food (an acronym for "Biologically Appropriate Raw Food")
It consists of raw foods such as meat, bones, organs, and vegetables. It is based on the idea of being more like the one an animal would find in nature. The raw diet may lack some essential nutrients, so it is important to consider supplements, as well as make sure to maintain high hygiene standards to avoid bacterial contamination. Breed-specific foods
Foods formulated to meet the particular needs of certain breeds. Foods for specific life stages
These can be for puppies, adults, or seniors. Foods for pets with special dietary needs
We can mention, for example, grain-free, hypoallergenic, or foods for pets with weight problems. Snacks and treats
These are small portions of tasty foods for training or as a reward. They are not substitutes for the main meal. Nutritional supplements (vitamins and minerals) They are designed to ensure that the pet receives all the necessary nutrients. Not all animals need supplements. We should remember that a pet will eat the food their owner selects for him and, usually, it will be the same for long periods of time. This food must be balanced and provide all the nutrients so that a pet remains in good health and well-being. Pet parents now have access to more food options and information, and research on pet nutrition has become more advanced and available. As we have seen, there is a category designed by years of research for each specific pet. These foods are prepared to cover each and every one of the nutritional requirements of a dog or cat, considering various factors, including the species, life stage (puppy, adult, senior), size (small, medium, large), breed, activity level, and any special dietary needs.  It is important to note that food choice should be based on the specific needs of each individual pet, as today, food categories that nourish the pet 100% are available for everyone.

By MVZ. Armando Enriquez de la Fuente Blanquet. Source: All Pet Food Magazine.

For Armando Enriquez de la Fuente Blanquet


Vegetable Origin

Vegetable Origin Pet supplements on the rise
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3+ MIN

Fiber Innovations - Time to shine

Gut Health Feeding complete foods rich in natural fiber is undoubtedly good for a pet´s health – a fact that is backed up by an array of scientific studies. As components of pet food and functional ingredients, specific fiber sources are primarily known for their ability to keep a pet´s digestive system healthy and balanced. Clinical studies have shown that supplementing dry and wet cat food with cellulose fiber helps to reduce typical hairball symptoms and to raise fecal hair excretion in cats. Preventing obesity As in humans, pet obesity numbers continue to increase year by year. According to the Association for Pet Obesity (APOP), nearly 60% of cats and 56% of dogs in the US are overweight or obese. Weight management foods enriched with concentrated cellulose fiber can help to better control weight in cats and dogs without affecting food palatability. Dental care Oral health is another top concern among pet owners. Approximately 70% of cats and 80% of dogs develop some form of oral health problem by the time they are three years old. Clinical studies have proven that dental foods and snacks enhanced with specific cellulose fibers work more effectively to promote oral health in dogs when compared with fiber-free control products. Standardized quality Consistency, texture, and uniformity of pet food products are key quality attributes that are important to consumers but may be difficult to maintain. Given the variable nature of ingredients and the complexity of the manufacturing process, creating the right consistency can be a challenge for the manufacturer. Well-known binders such as spray-dried plasma (SDP), wheat gluten, or egg white/albumin commonly are used in so-called restructured meat products like chunks and in all 47 meat applications for their high swelling, water retention, and emulsion capabilities. With a series of long-term pilot scale tests at their Technical Competence Center in Rosenberg (Germany), JRS demonstrated that a favorable cost-benefit is achieved by partially replacing conventional binders with functional cellulose fibers.
Regardless of the type of meat ingredient tested, replacing 2% SDF with 1% cellulose helps optimize the key parameters in a steam tunnel process and improves the textural parameters of the chunk before and after retorting. Fiber as a tool Fiber research is also currently underway into capturing product quality features in dry grain-free products with high meat inclusion in order to overcome typical extrusion challenges such as stickiness, reduced throughput, or poor product integrity. Natural products for the future As pet food trends follow our tastes and expectations discovering the functionality of simple, natural plant fibers is a key field of innovation.
These special natural fibers can help develop vegan meat alternatives giving the substitute products the right consistency and the desired structure. Moreover, many pet owners are exploring raw feeding with product convenience being a strong argument for consistent purchase. Natural plantfibers can make raw pet food firmer and more comfortable to handle while contributing to good digestion. Energy Savings Opportunities Each pet food and treat product format offers opportunities for cost savings and improvement in overall efficiency, especially during a global energy crisis, this fact is the focus of every entrepreneur. Specialized cellulose fibers have proven to make production processes more sustainable. In dry pet food, the drying time in production can be reduced by 50% making way for lower power consumption and relieving the bottleneck in drying, allowing for higher product throughput. Tailored Fiber Solutions With enormous demand across the pet industry for innovative products, manufacturers are looking for unique marketable, and functional ingredients. Specialized plant fibers can be considered the pet food technologist´s toolbox for providing a wide range of functionalities across the whole spectrum of pet food products: dry to wet, frozen to sterilized, and even dietary supplements such as tablets. As a leader in fiber products, JRS offers a comprehensive range of fiber ingredients that are suitable for all manufacturing processes and formulation options. Fibers that can help create sustainable pet food for better differentiation and improved pet health.   By: Dr. Astrid Bosse. JRS Petfood & Aquafeed Source: All Pet Food Magazine

Vegetable Origin Pet supplements on the rise
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3+ MIN

Australian firm introduces flexitarian diets for dogs

Many pet parents are adopting one of pet food's hottest trends: raw, fresh and high meat diets. However, high meat diets typically have a high environmental impact. While many pet parents are resistant to turning their dogs vegan - although research shows they could - Planet A Pet Food helps people move to a flexitarian diet for their dogs.
 
Planet A launches Australia's freshest, entovegan dog food, combining upcycled veg and insect protein, with a food-grade plant-based meat analog, that's being used in restaurants and food service around the country.  "People have the idea that their dogs should eat meat, and a lot of it," says Planet A founder Amanda Falconer. "And they often say they're uncomfortable forcing their 'environmental' choices onto their dogs. When we created Planet A, we wanted to meet people where they were in their dog nutrition beliefs but also give them options to mix it up…just as they do for themselves. And that's because, even though I'm vegan myself, I know the majority of people are going to be meat reducers, not vegans." Even though dogs don't have a requirement for the ingredient - meat - but the nutrients it provides, giving dogs the pleasure of the taste and texture of meat was also important. Working with small animal nutritionist Dr Anna Sutton, Planet A Pet Food created nutritionally complete meat-free food that dogs love, featuring human food-grade plant protein, that looks and tastes like meat, but isn't.   The Planet A No-Meat Dinners also combine insect protein, food by-product ingredients together with sustainably harvested algae. Consumers just add water to rehydrate the food, so that it's fresh, when they need it. Food by-product ingredients include: Black solider fly larvae protein, produced using traceable pre-consumer food by-products, like bread from Bakers Delight, excess stock from Simplot and unconsumed food from McDonalds. The production of 1 tonne of insect protein powder creates 2.5 tonnes of insect fertiliser and utilises 14 tonnes of food by-products, preventing an estimated 28 tonnes of greenhouse emissions, resulting in a net offset of over 25 tonnes of carbon emissions per tonne of protein powder.  Vegetable powders from Australia's largest tomato processor, Kagome. They've developed LycoFibre®, an antioxidant-rich ingredient produced from tomato skins, and NinjinFibre® carrot fibre. About 25% of carrots used for juice is waste, and so Kagome's drying process converts 7000 tonnes of carrot pulp per year into 700 tonnes of value-added powder. Vegetable powders lightly dried from out of spec (size-wise) veg and the leaves of cabbages, broccoli and cauliflower. These are also used in human food snacks.  Up to a third of greenhouse gas emissions globally come from the food system and pet food accounts for about 25% of that and growing. About a quarter of all food grown never leaves the farm and Australia discards about 7 million tonnes of food every year. 42% of Australians have either reduced meat consumption or stopped eating it altogether. They have about 2.7million dogs between them.  By Planet A  


Animal Origin

Animal Origin Pet supplements on the rise
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3+ MIN

Innovative FEED Act introduced in US House of Representatives

The Innovative Feed Enhancement and Economic Development (Innovative FEED) Act was introduced into the U.S. House of Representatives on December 7, a step toward establishing a regulatory pathway for a new category of animal feed additives. The bill was introduced in the U.S. Senate in June. The Innovative FEED Act would amend the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act to allow for a new category of animal food substances that act solely within animals' gut microbiomes or in the feed they are digesting to provide a wide range of benefits, giving the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the power it needs to ensure regulations keep pace with scientific innovation in feed, the American Feed Industry Association (AFIA) said in a press release. 'The AFIA is excited that the Senate has already introduced the Innovative FEED Act and now, with the House introduction, the bill has the bipartisan and bicameral support we hoped for,' AFIA President and CEO Constance Cullman said. 'Now, we urge Congress to act quickly on the bill. The legislation will be the spark needed to drive nutritional innovation that improves animal health and production while addressing public health challenges. We need this modernized regulatory oversight instead of the current policy of overregulation. Any delay in enacting this legislation continues to put U.S. agriculture at a disadvantage compared to our global counterparts whose regulatory systems have evolved with the times.' The FDA's Center of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) regulates animal foods with drug claims, including environmental benefit or production claims and claims about the effects on the animal's microbiome. Many in the animal feed industry agree CVM's regulations are overly burdensome and that some rules are inconsistent and arbitrary, and that they put U.S. companies at a competitive disadvantage. They also say the regulations put U.S. dairy and beef producers at a disadvantage because they don't have broad access to these methane-reducing feed additives. Dozens of countries have already safely approved and started using these feed ingredients on farms, resulting in improved animal production, well-being, reduced pre-harvest food safety concerns, and a smaller environmental footprint, AFIA said. 'Competent authorities of our global competitors in Europe, Asia and South America already have updated their policies to allow feed products on the market that demonstrate increased efficiency in meat production as well as byproduct and waste reduction,' said David Fairfield, senior vice president of feed at the National Grain and Feed Association, in a statement. 'To compete in the global market, farmers and ranchers in the United States need access to innovative zootechnical animal food substances to improve animal production and well-being, diminish pre-harvest food safety concerns, and boost sustainability opportunities.' The AFIA has urged the FDA to modernize its outdated 1998 Policy and Procedures Manual Guide 1240.3605, which has hindered animal food manufacturers from clearly indicating non-nutritive benefits on labels without navigating the FDA's arduous drug approval process. There is a wide range of feed additives that have been shown to reduce enteric methane emissions by between 2% and 12% per year. These include seaweed, fatty acids, 3-Nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), oregano, tannins, nitrate, biochar, cinnamon, garlic and saponins. 'These ingredients have novel benefits that make a positive impact on our food production system, such as improving feed efficiency and reducing human foodborne illness," Fairfield said. "This legislation would provide food manufacturers with a pathway to make truthful, non-misleading production, environmental and well-being claims for animal foods that have been substantiated to provide such benefits more efficiently.' The Innovative FEED Act will bring about the necessary changes to ensure these additives are reviewed for safety and effectiveness as food additives, not drugs, and can more quickly come to market for U.S. farmers and ranchers to choose to use, AFIA said.  By AFIA Source . All Pet Food
 

Animal Origin Pet supplements on the rise
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2+ MIN

NARA recognizes Pet Food Alliance coordinator

Martin is an associate professor in Meat Safety and Quality and a meat extension specialist at the Colorado State University's (CSU) Department of Animal Sciences. At CSU, Martin leads a research program focused on the safety and quality of meat and other meat-related products that aims to support industry partners. Additionally, she collaborates with meat and livestock industry members, and serves as the co-leader of Upskilling, a workforce and educational program at CSU's College of Agricultural Sciences that provides career pathways for those in the agri-food industry. In addition to her work at CSU, Martin also coordinates the PFA, a joint project facilitated through the university and FPRF. The alliance seeks to unite members of the rendering, pet food, laboratory and research, academia and technological industries in order to explore opportunities and create solutions to industry-wide challenges. According to NARA, Martin's ongoing commitment to the PFA, as well as her continued support of the FPRF and its initiatives, makes her a worthy recipient of the prestigious award. 'I am truly honored to receive the Fred Bisplinghoff Research Innovation Award from FPRF,' Martin said. 'I am grateful for the opportunity to serve the rendering industry through the Pet Food Alliance and thankful for the numerous industry partners who are willing to collaboratively develop solutions for industry-wide challenges.' Charles Starkey, Ph.D., vice president of scientific and regulatory affairs of NARA and director of research at FPRF, presented Martin with the award during NARA's 2023 Convention in Naples. By NARA

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